Project Description

Author: Rafi et al.



Women are major vulnerable group for adverse health events attributable to household air pollution from cooking fuel and secondhand smoking like hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income countries including India. The objective of the present study was to find out the relation between household air pollution & secondhand smoking and hypertension among pre-menopausal women.


This study was conducted based on secondary data retrieved from the fifth National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2019-21 of India. We collected data of pre-menopausal women aged 18 to 49 years and blood pressure (BP) measurement of the corresponding women. Household air pollution was defined as use of solid cooking fuels and secondhand smoking was defined as at least one individual smoking indoor other than the interviewee. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to exlore the association of cooking fuel and secondhand smoking with hypertension.


Approximately 18.4% of the women had hypertension. The risk of having hypertension was higher (AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07, 1.13, p<0.001) among women exposed to household air pollution. The stratified analysis by place of residence showed that only urban women using solid fuel had higher chance of having hypertension (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15, p<0.001). Besides, the risk of hypertension was higher in women who exposed to household secondhand smoking compared to their counterparts (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12, 1.17, p<0.001).


Exposure to household air pollution from solid cooking fuel and secondhand smoking increase the risk of hypertension among pre-menopausal women. Improved cooking facilities and prevention of secondhand smoking could be important initiatives to reduce the burden of hypertension among women.

Keywords: Hypertension, household air pollution, cooking fuel, secondhand smoking, women

Status: Ongoing

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