Project Description


In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), tetanus continues to be a major public health concern. Although vaccination campaigns have been effective in lowering the incidence of tetanus worldwide, some areas continue to experience a considerable number of cases and fatalities. Adult tetanus is frequently underreported because there is insufficient systematic surveillance and reporting. A high proportion of tetanus patients die because of a lack of adequate critical care services, particularly ventilator support, with limited access to existing facilities due to high costs. Hence, the case fatality rate of adult tetanus remains high. Women and children are protected because of regular and booster immunization strategies implemented around the world. However, men are disproportionately affected by tetanus. Booster dosage based on the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended schedule should be given to eligible children and adolescent boys. In addition, tetanus vaccination needs to be promoted among adults in vulnerable jobs. Functional strategies could help pave the way toward the protection of all against tetanus.

Full text link: pntd.0011611.pdf (

Keywords: Tetanus, Clostridium tetani, Low- and Middle-Income Countries, LMICs, Tetanus Toxoid-Containing Vaccine (TTCV)